عنوان مقاله [English]
Chrono-urbanization is the latest manifestation of modern urbanism, and it has revolutionized environmental planning policies. This type of urban planning policy emphasizes time and temporal urban planning. Besides this issue, habitable neighborhoods with the correct time scenario affect health and the ability to lead a healthy life. In this regard, the concept of 20-minute neighborhoods, with an emphasis on health dimensions, is rooted in the compact city approach. This approach involves the development of urban areas with short walking distances from residents to access public transportation, public open space, and good access to destinations, facilities, and services that encourage everyday local life. The idea that a person’s daily needs can be met within an active travel distance has become a global flavor of urban policy and planning. The increasing pace of life in the city due to economic issues has forced citizens to change and adapt their lifestyles, maximizing the use of comfort facilities. Besides this challenge, the existence of spatial and social inequalities is one of the main issues in neighborhoods, especially in the context of old cities. The concept of 20-minute neighborhoods was created to address and solve these problems. Currently, this approach has been chosen by several European local and national governments, turning from a principle of planning and design into a comprehensive policy for the future city government. These neighborhoods are recognized globally as a good way to improve life and reduce car travel by having most of the things you need close to you [21, 17]. It was published earlier this year for Melbourne, proposing a city that consists of 20-minute neighborhoods [22, 2]. On the other hand, it can be said that 20-minute neighborhoods are places where everyone can have better access to essential local services and open spaces  while also enjoying excellent transportation and active travel links to the rest of the city [24, 26]. This approach allows people to live well in a locality through the services and opportunities available in their area . 20 Minutes has become a special brand in the world, which, of course, does not have new roots and follows the previous idea of Harvard’s Garden City [27 and 31]. Transportation is based on carbon and supports citizens’ health at the same time [28 and 32]. This concept goes beyond political economies by calling for liberal and socialist societies . Open spaces are also emphasized [21 and 36]. Therefore, it can be said that the advantages of this approach are multiple, including more active people and better mental and physical health [32 and 4]. Furthermore, it should be emphasized that the nature of these neighborhoods means it is not about creating restrictions for people’s travel outside their boundaries but about supporting local communities and businesses . It is a city with transportation planning . Now the important question is, why 20 minutes? People travel less on foot than in the past because the distance to the things they need has become longer [2, 15]. Those who do not have vehicles are isolated with poor access to daily services. It should also be kept in mind that spaces dominated by cars harm health and the environment . This research aims to evaluate the approach of 20-minute neighborhoods in the form of a comparative comparison in the old context (Gennet neighborhood) and the new context of the city (neighborhood Imamate) in Mashhad so that its feasibility can be analyzed in two different ways.
Materials and Methods
The research method is quantitative and employs a comparative-hypothetical approach. A questionnaire was utilized to collect information and field data. The statistical population of the research includes 2633 people in the Jannet neighborhood and 3375 people in the Imamat neighborhood. The selected sample size was calculated using Cochran’s formula as 335 and 344, respectively, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was calculated as 0.759. Data analysis was conducted by comparing the averages of two independent communities in SPSS software. The findings of the research indicate that the Imamat neighborhood (new neighborhood), with an average of 49.28 compared to the Jannet neighborhood (old texture) with an average of 44.4 and an overall average of 47, is closer to the indicators of 20-minute neighborhoods. To assess the spatio-temporal analysis of the 20-minute neighborhood approach, Tablo software served as the measurement tool. Spatial-spatial analysis was also employed to analyze the existing realities and the spatial components of the conceptual model. Initially, a checklist corresponding to the characteristics of 20-minute localities, such as the required functions and access network, was prepared. Subsequently, based on the characteristics of the 20-minute neighborhood approach (10-minute round trip and 10-minute return) and the access radius of 800 meters, 800-meter buffers were drawn around each neighborhood, corresponding to the geometric center of the neighborhoods. Finally, the criteria for checking the existing standards in the reality of each neighborhood were considered to be the functions within this buffer. Based on this, the existing conditions for both neighborhoods were measured using field observations and statistical information from GIS software to analyze the proximity of each neighborhood to the standards of the approach.
The results of the comparative study of two neighborhoods, Janet and Imamat, considered the old and new fabric of Mashhad city; show that both neighborhoods have the potential and issues to become successful 20-minute neighborhoods for residents. Additionally, the presence of high permeability, access to services, active trips, facilities, and local health services has a stronger presence in new neighborhoods (Imamat neighborhood) than in old neighborhoods. However, in contrast to the local economy, local job opportunities and social interactions are much more active in old neighborhoods (Gennet neighborhood). In general, it can be mentioned that the Imamat neighborhood (new structure) has better coverage from a functional point of view, and these functions are connected with a continuous network of bicycles and public transportation. On the other hand, the Jannet neighborhood (old structure) has less permeability due to the type of tissue, and the public transportation network within the tissue experiences less traffic, which is considered a fundamental weakness in the approach.
20-minute neighborhoods are not just about access to amenities; they can have real benefits for health, the environment, and the local economy. Reducing the use of cars and encouraging more use of other modes of transportation is considered a positive aspect of this approach. Therefore, it should be kept in mind that these neighborhoods are where people want to live, so the existence of affordable housing is crucial. However, all these issues aim to create “livable places,” locations that improve the quality of life and provide flexibility against challenges. Therefore, the essence of this approach implies that a person can reach all their needs comfortably and willingly on foot within a reasonable distance. What makes these neighborhoods special is the definition of diverse and attractive spaces. According to the findings of the present research, the research hypothesis should first be stated: “Imamat neighborhood of Mashhad city (the new fabric of the city)” has more potential to become a 20-minute neighborhood than the Jannet neighborhood (the old fabric of the city). Confirmation is possible because, based on the nature of the approach designed and planned according to the thoughts of the modern world, it has more potential to align with its main features.