عنوان مقاله [English]
The 21st century is the century of cities, ideas, and creativity. Human creativity and talent are considered creative human capital, the main driver of economic, social, and cultural growth and development. The increasing competition of cities, regions, and countries will increasingly depend on its cultivation, preservation, and attraction. Research shows that creative capital has more explanatory power than human capital to explain the economic prosperity of cities and is the key to urban-regional economic growth and the age of creativity. So that in today's creative economy, ideas and intellectual capital have replaced natural resources, and human creativity is the ultimate source of economic growth. Creative Capital selects specific cities and regions for work and living, known as creative cities: cities with the most significant capacity to attract, retain and nurture creative capital.
Accordingly, this research seeks to focus on three key questions. The first issue is how to operationalize the new concept of creative capital in Iran. The second problem focuses on investigating the effects of creative capital on the economic prosperity of cities and regions; As in the theoretical literature, many researchers have emphasized this issue and proved it.
Considering the importance and role of creative capital in economic prosperity and urban-regional development, cities and places with more creative capital will become more developed and prosperous, and vice versa, cities and places with less creative capital will decline. In this regard, the third issue is that among factors of production, creative capital has high mobility and its amount and distribution are uneven and divergent; the third question forms the research on which factors shape the distribution of creative capital in Iranian metropolises.
Materials and Methods
This research is correlational and explanatory research. This research's data collection and analysis unit are Iran's metropolises (cities with more than one million people).
The steps used to achieve the research objectives are as follows: first, the critical research variable of the creative class is operationally defined, and its statistics and information are analyzed at the level of Iranian metropolises. In this research, according to the theoretical literature on the role of creative capital in the growth of the urban-regional economy, in the second stage, the role of creative capital (as an explanatory and independent variable) at the level of Iranian metropolises in economic functions (as a dependent variable) such as per capita GDP and capita Bank deposits are analyzed using correlation test and linear regression in SPSS software. In other words, the explanatory power of urban-regional economic growth is explained by creative capital. Then, according to the role of creative capital in the growth of the urban-regional economy, influential factors in the locational decisions of creative capital and their percentage presence in metropolises are explained. At this stage, after explaining the role of creative capital in economic variables, it is discussed what factors lead to the dispersion of creative capital (dependent variable) and their different presence in the country's metropolises.
The findings show that the highest level of the creative class is related to Tehran, so 23.5% of its employees are in jobs with a high degree of creativity. After Tehran, the metropolises of Ahvaz (7/19), Isfahan (8/18), Karaj (2/18), Shiraz (2/18), Tabriz (6/15), Qom (4/15) are placed in the next ranks. Also, the lowest rate is related to Mashhad (with 15.3 percent) of employees in the creative class.
The research findings show that the spatial patterns of the creative class in Iran are more concentrated in the metropolises. The creative class in Iran is a metropolitan phenomenon in such a way that the metropolises, despite having approximately 26% of the country's population and 26% of the country's total workforce, 42% of the entire creative class of the country.
The findings show that there is a strong correlation between the percentage of the creative class of metropolises and economic variables. So that there is a strong positive and significant correlation between the creative class and GDP per capita (correlation coefficient = 0.868 and significance coefficient = 0.005), and creative capital can explain 71.2% of changes in GDP per capita. Similarly, there is a positive and significant correlation between creative capital and per capita bank deposits (correlation coefficient = 0.816 and significance coefficient = 0.014), and creative capital can explain 61% of changes in bank deposits per capita.
In the talent factor, the findings show that there is a correlation between creative capital and university concentration variables (correlation coefficient = 0.737 and significance coefficient = 0.037), the concentration of top universities (correlation coefficient = 0.759 and significance coefficient = 0.029), the percentage of the population with higher education (correlation coefficient = 0.883 and significance coefficient = 0.004), bachelor students and above per 1000 people (correlation coefficient = 0.750 and significance coefficient = 0.032) has a positive and significant correlation..
Tolerance and openness to diversity affect the amount and geographical distribution of talent and creative capital. In other words, places open to all kinds of demographic diversity, different thoughts, and opinions, and accepting them can accommodate and attract more creative capital. In this regard, in the factor of tolerance and diversity, the findings of the table show that between creative capital and variables of religious diversity (correlation coefficient = 0.884 and significance coefficient = 0.004), the concentration of artists (percentage of artists from all employees) (correlation coefficient = 758/ 0 and the significance coefficient=0.029), the share of the metropolis from the total immigrants who entered the metropolises (correlation coefficient=0.735 and the significance coefficient=0.038) and the share of the metropolises from the total foreign immigrants of the metropolises (correlation coefficient=0.767 and the coefficient Significance = 0.026), there is a positive and significant correlation.
In examining the factor of consumer services, which in a way represents local facilities and assets, the findings showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between creative capital and consumer services, and the material presented in the context of the service role of the city and its amenities and the presence of the creative class has a significant relationship (coefficient Correlation = 0.706 and significance coefficient = 0.049), which is significant.
In general, this research comes to the conclusion that the future competitiveness of cities and regions and having the upper hand in future developments and the transition to a creative economy will be through creative capital, whose positive effects on the economic prosperity of cities and regions were investigated and approved in this research. However, what is clear is that creative capital chooses certain places to work and live, which this research makes clear, having a tolerant and diverse environment, the artistic and creative atmosphere of the city, amenities, and the service role of the city, along with the concentration of universities and higher education, along with talents such as students with higher education who are to some extent future creative capital, can be attractive to creative capital and influence one’s location decisions to work and live in a city.