عنوان مقاله [English]
Materials and methods
The research method of this article is descriptive-analytical. This way, the necessary information has been extracted and categorized using library studies, reviewing aerial maps of the area, and analyzing the Washington Charter about the historic city. Additionally, the problems and challenges of the old bazaar area have been studied and identified by conducting field studies, preparing maps of the current situation of the old bazaar, and talking to knowledgeable people and bazaar shopkeepers. Finally, the SWOT technique was used to achieve a practical solution. The revitalization program will be presented after measuring and analyzing the mentioned cases.
The old bazaar has a strategic location due to its proximity to the old square, Jāme’ Mosque, and being surrounded by the city’s old residential area. The old bazaar complex belongs to the Safavid period and was registered as a cultural heritage in 1997 with the number 1937 . The economic prosperity of Qom Bazaar has been due to two reasons: First, the city was located in the center of communication routes north-south and east-west of Iran. Secondly, the formation of a bazaar adjacent to the old square in the central part of the city was connecting the communication paths of the neighborhoods. Today, communication routes do not have the former function, and the regional role of the bazaar area has been reduced to neighborhood urban activities role. On the other side, the Qom Bazaar integrated form had become two separate orders (old and new) by constructing the street in the Pahlavi period in 1937, and part of the bazaar was destroyed (Figure 1). In 1997, the Amaryasar axis was formed perpendicular to Taleghani Street and destroyed the Bazazah caravanserai affiliated with the old bazaar.
This study aims to develop strategies to revitalize the urban area of the old bazaar in Qom based on urban protection frameworks. To achieve this goal, the old bazaar and its surrounding urban elements, including the old square as a crucial element of the historical city in the past and the street as a main traffic axis in today’s city were evaluated. Studies show that the Qom bazaar had an important position in the core of the historical area and was considered as the economic center of the historic city. However, the construction of Azar Street in 1937 changed the historical pattern of the city, and the city based on the street replaced the bazaar-based city. Since then, the street has taken the role of a commercial center, and the position of the bazaar in the city has been declining. This article provides a clear picture of the current situation of the area. It examines challenges relying on the Charter of Historic Urban Areas (Washington) and its components, including access, function, and physical-spatial structure. Also, this article assesses the urban area of the old bazaar to de-fine strategies for revitalizing this area by studying three important and influential districts, including the bazaar, the street, and the square. Improving the bazaar’s position requires reviving its affiliated complexes such as the Mullah Hossein Caravanserai, returning commercial activities to the bazaar, and redefining the connection between the bazaar and the street. Also, physical protection of the bazaar is necessary. The old bazaar’s role in urban life will be lost entirely if this process is postponed. Another strategy in this field is to organize the blank spaces around the bazaar by creating a non-commercial use, which improves the historical context’s poor condition and helps strengthen the connection between the street and the bazaar. It is also necessary to determine other strategies for the street and the square to define proper relationship with the bazaar. In this regard, we can help revive the historical context by reducing the commercial and accessibility role of the street and redefining the role of the street. It is also possible to strengthen residential use and bazaar access routes by improving historical passages. Other ways to revive this historical area are to strengthen the connection between the square and the bazaar, return the square to its authentic position, organize the bazaar structurally and functionally, and organize the Ghiasieh School. Prioritization of strategies for revitalizing the urban area of the old bazaar shows that the main and most important actions must first be taken to organize and protect the crucial elements of the historic city, including the Old Bazaar, Mullah Hossein Caravanserai, Old Square and Ghiasieh School, which will pave the way for further actions, and until this is done, other revitalization strategies in this area will not be able to play their role properly.