عنوان مقاله [English]
Along with population growth and the production of various products, human beings are faced with a large amount of waste that poses a significant risk to human health and the environment regarding materials and constituent elements. It seems necessary to reduce the adverse effects of municipal solid waste in Iran and other developing countries by integrating the knowledge of local experts and modern technologies, including new waste management methods and analysis of multi-criteria decision making to act easier and faster. One of the strengths of using the multi-criteria decision-making method to locate waste landfills is the possibility of using a set of powerful interactive tools to adjust compensability and compensation between criteria, which allows rapid evaluation of relationships between criteria. In addition to the fuzzy prioritization method, the Prometheus method, by providing a variety of preferential functions, provides the opportunity to obtain a more realistic definition of decision criteria. These features were created to show the combination of these two methods to show remarkable ability to solve the problem of evaluation and prioritization. This paper presents method three to assess land suitability to locate municipal waste landfills in Zahedan (including Zahedan and Nusratabad cities).
Materials and Methods
In this paper, while identifying the factors affecting the location of landfills in Zahedan (including Zahedan and Nusratabad cities), the influential factors of prioritization and optimal location criteria, taking into account the ecological potential of the region, are determined and weighted and prioritized. Criteria and constraints were assessed using multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods. During the evaluation studies and to measure the capabilities of Zahedan city for urban development uses, first, all the maps were digitized. Then, the map data was transferred to the GIS environment by formatting, and a geographical database also was prepared. After the constraint evaluation stage, using the Network Analysis (ANP) method, weighting and decision making about land units are done. Then, the places identified by the Visual Promethee Academic method are prioritized, and in this regard, the best and most appropriate ones. The highest location was zoned and located for the landfill of Zahedan (Zahedan and Nusratabad cities). To know the effectiveness of each evaluation criteria used in locating the landfill in Zahedan, the sensitivity analysis of the model corrected by the GAIA method has been performed.
In this article, the most suitable areas in the south and southeast Zahedan county were identified after identifying proper places for waste burial. According to the five classification classes, the region’s highest level is the category without power (99.76%), and the regions with power are about 0.231%. In the area with power, 22 units for Zahedan county and 35 units for Nusrat Abad county were found suitable for waste disposal. To prioritize the identified sites, finally, in the visual software environment, the proposed burial sites were selected by the method (PROMETHEE), one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods (MADM), which aims to rank the options. In Zahedan county, units No. 7, 8, 12, and around Nusratabad county, units No. 28, 27, and 29 have been introduced as the best-proposed areas for waste disposal.
Zahedan province, with a growth rate of 0.61 percent in 1400, will reach 611374 people in 1420. Consequently, the amount of waste production will also increase. The rate of waste production per person is 613 grams per day. At present, up to 375 tons of waste is produced per day. According to population estimates in 1420 and future lifestyle changes, it is predicted that 2737,500 tons of city waste will be generated in the next 20 years. According to calculations, including the landfill and the required infrastructure space, based on the amount of waste generated in the next 20 years, about 90 hectares of land is needed. On the other hand, according to the results of this study, approximately 7,107 hectares of suitable land with a very high capacity for burying county waste in Zahedan county have been identified, which shows that it will meet the needs of Zahedan citizens even more than 20 years. Finally, a sensitivity analysis of the corrected model has been performed to determine the effectiveness of each evaluation criterion in locating the Zahedan landfill.
The derivative results of this paper from the GAIA and one-parameter methods show that this paper’s ranking is strong.