عنوان مقاله [English]
Urban design solutions to reduce crimes have been repeatedly tested, but less effort has been made to test and adapt these ideas to the special conditions of Iranian cities. Among different urban tissues, worn-out tissues are a more suitable platform for the growth and formation of crime-prone places. One of the efficient techniques for analyzing urban textures is the theory of space syntax, which seeks to discover the relationship between the man-made environment and the social life of residents; Cited. Therefore, by using this technique, it is possible to recognize some of the behavioral patterns in urban spaces and provide urban plans compatible with these patterns. Research related to security using the space syntax technique is based on the assumption that, by increasing “natural surveillance” in public spaces, the probability of crime can be reduced. Among the metropolises of Iran, because of its rapid physical growth, Karaj has serious weaknesses in its urban structure. These physical and spatial weaknesses are more visible in the worn-out tissues of this city. Therefore, the worn-out fabric of the Qalamestan neighborhood has been chosen as one of the old neighborhoods of this city for study and analysis. In this research, an attempt has been made to provide plans to improve security by measuring the spatial configuration of the Qalamestan Karaj neighborhood recognizing its physical and spatial characteristics, and predicting the effectiveness of these plans in improving the security of the neighborhood by using the space syntax technique.
Materials and Methods
The current research is applied in terms of its purpose and descriptive-analytical in terms of its method. The method of data collection is a field. The assessment of road safety is based on a checklist, filling out a questionnaire, and taking pictures. The scope of the study is the worn-out texture of the Qalamestan neighborhood in the city center. Qalamestan neighborhood is one of the old districts of Karaj city. The analysis of the weathered texture of Qalemastan has been carried out by UCL.Depthmap software. The statistical sample has been selected in two stages of the research. In both stages, Cochran’s formula with an error coefficient of 0.05 was used to determine the sample size. Questionnaire which was distributed among 348 people of Qalamistan. The total number of streets in the neighborhood is 102 and with the same error coefficient, the sample size is 43. The data of checklists and questionnaires were analyzed using the MOD method. After removing inconsistent data, to analyze the relationship between variables, a correlation test was used in Spss software environment version 23. After presenting the design suggestions based on the analysis, and finally, the presented designs were measured again with the method of space layout and twelve main components of the checklist.
The data extracted from the questionnaire showed that the feeling of security of the citizens of the Qalamestan neighborhood is equal to 57.25%. Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the level of security and the level of connection is 0.784; Therefore, there is a significant relationship between the percentage of security and connection. This means that the level of security of the roads will also increase with the increase in the level of connection between the roads of the Qalamestan neighborhood. Also, there is a significant relationship between the percentage of security and the amount of depth. This relationship, according to the negative Pearson correlation coefficient, means that with the increase in the depth of the roads in the Qalamestan neighborhood, the safety level of the roads decreases.
The changes in the components of the spatial syntax in the proposed plans show the positive changes in security on the roads of Qalamestan. The proposed reforms have been performed to improve the roads with severe weakness, and regarding the non-change of the hierarchy of importance of the roads, besides maintaining the relative coherence of the fabric, it has improved the components that are effective in security. In these plans, the amount of security has increased by an average of 22.37. The increase in the level of security is confirmed after performing physical reforms within the specified limits, and the occurrence of insecurity and crime can be reduced by a physical reform in urban spaces in worn-out contexts.